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Komponent®

Komponent®: Shrinkage Compensating Concrete Additive

Komponent® is an expansive mineral additive. Mix Komponent with portland cement to produce an ASTM C845 Type-K shrinkage-compensating cement. In concrete mixtures, Komponent compensates for the shrinkage associated with portland cement and improves resistance to sulfate attack. Komponent has a proven track record of improving concrete durability, saving construction time, and simplifying designs by eliminating joints, waterstops, pourstrips, slab curling, and shrinkage cracks.

Applications include: warehouses, hangars, paving, retail stores, skating rinks, runways, tennis courts, skateboard parks, water treatment facilities, tanks, reservoirs, secondary containment, hazardous waste, piers, wharves, bridges, roof decks, parking structures, concrete buildings and walls

Datasheet...

Datasheet

The Datasheet explains the performance and technical characteristics of Komponent®.  It also shows how to use Komponent (i.e. surface preparation, mixing, placement and curing).

SDS

The Safety Data Sheet (SDS) outlines information and procedures for handling and working with Komponent®.  It includes physical and chemical property information, potential hazards, emergency procedures and CTS’s contact information.

Specification

The specifications provide detailed information for the use of Komponent when used in Concrete or Non-Shrink Grout applications, including the scope of work, thicknesses, performance requirements and usage.

Click here for the word document for concrete

Click here for the word document for non-shrink grout

Standard Practices

Q: What is Komponent®?
A:
Komponent is an expansive mineral additive used to create Type K Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete that eliminates the drying shrinkage cracking associated with portland cement and offers long-term dimensional stability of the concrete. Its ability to prevent drying shrinkage cracking, significantly reduce control joint requirements (90-95%), eliminate slab curling and cracked/spalled edges, and improve abrasion resistance by 30-40% makes it the most cost effective and highest performing concrete solution available.

Q: What are the specifications that are now in effect that can be used for guidelines?
A: 
CTS Cement provides a master guideline specification for Type K Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete on our website. (See Specifications above.) CTS Cement Engineers and our Technical Support team can assist with project recommendations for specific applications, like concrete containment structures, slabs-on-grade, parking structures, geotechnical, etc.  The following publications may also be helpful:

  • ASTM C806 (Test Method for Restrained Expansion of Expansive Cement Mortar).
  • ASTM C845 (Standard Specification for Expansive Hydraulic Cement).
  • ASTM C878 (Test Method for Restrained Expansion of Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete).
  • ACI 223 (Standard Practice for Use of Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete).
  • ACI SP-2 (ACI Manual for Concrete Practices) Page 374-38 1.
  • Ohio Department of Transportation (Expansive Hydraulic Cement).
  • Ohio Turnpike Commission – 5P5 1 1A (Class S Concrete, Using Shrinkage Compensating Cement).
  • U.S. Corps of Engineers – Standard Practice for Concrete (Emi 110-2-2000).

Q: What makes shrinkage-compensating concrete different from ordinary concrete?
A:
When regular portland cement concrete hardens and begins to dry out, a negative volume change occurs in the total mass. This process is called drying shrinkage. Shrinkage of a concrete sets up internal tensile stresses, and if these stresses exceed the tensile strength of the concrete, cracking, called drying shrinkage cracks, occur. The shrinkage-compensating concrete expands slightly during the early stages following placement and, when restrained by reinforcement, puts mass into compression. The mass returns to its original size when the effects of drying shrinkage occur, relieving the compressive stresses related to regular portland cement. The result is a concrete that can minimize drying shrinkage cracks and ensure dimensional stability of the concrete, as well as many other design and construction advantages over conventional portland cement.

Q: Where can I use shrinkage-compensating concrete?
A:
Shrinkage-compensating concrete can be used in any application where regular portland cement concrete is used, including, but not limited to reinforced and post tensioned structural slabs and slabs on grade, walls, topping, grouts, below-grade/underground and pre-cast elements.

Q: What can’t shrinkage-compensating concrete do?
A:
Shrinkage-compensating concrete cannot eliminate all types of cracking. There are many types of cracking such as settlement cracks, structural cracks, and cracks caused by a variety of influencing factors, like creep of concrete over long periods, plastic shrinkage cracks while concrete is in the semi-plastic state, and cracks related to environmental conditions or poor installation practices. Shrinkage-compensating concrete cannot overcome all cracks, but it can overcome the most common – drying shrinkage cracking, which contributes significantly to costly deterioration and early failure.

Structural Design Questions

Q: What is the recommended joint spacing?
A:
Typically joint spacing of 130’ x 130’ to 150’ x 150’ is used. Areas exposed to thermal movement may be limited to 100’ x 100’ feet. For longer, narrower placements, maintain the three-to-one (3:1) length to width ratio recommended in ACI223. Consult a CTS Cement representative for additional information and assistance with joint layouts.

Q: What are the steel requirements?
A:
Minimum steel requirements per ACI 223 are 0.15% of cross sectional area, however, structural considerations must also be observed. The steel must be covered by a two inch cap of concrete from the top of the concrete surface.

Q: Where is Komponent® available?
A:
Nationwide. It can be shipped anywhere in North America that it is desired in bags, by bulk, or by rail.

Q: Can we guarantee a crack-free project?
A:
Due to the wide range of influencing factors in concrete construction, no project can be guaranteed crack-free.  However, Type K shrinkage-compensating concrete was engineered to overcome the effects of shrinkage and minimize and potentially eliminate shrinkage cracks. If shrinkage cracking does occur, the cracks will be minute and tight, and markedly inconsequential to the long-term performance the concrete.

Q: How does shrinkage-compensating concrete gain strength compared to regular portland cement concrete?
A:
Shrinkage-compensating concrete has a slower strength gain from one to seven days than normal Type I cement. Type K is ground finer to compensate for this. The seven to 28-day strength gain after ettringite crystals have grown is comparable to regular PCC. The water cement ratio is the greatest factor effecting shrinkage-compensating cement strength, as it is with portland cement.

Mix Design Questions

Q: Why the higher water/cement ratios?
A:
Due to the hydration mechanism used to hydrate the Komonent® used in shrinkage-compensating concrete, and to ensure appropriate expansion, it requires 10% to 15% more mixing water than standard cement to accommodate the formation of the ettringite. Water cement ratios are typically 0.45 to 0.50 for interior concrete and 0.50 to 0.55 for exterior. We like to see the concrete batched at a seven-inch slump at the concrete plant because of the high demand for water, which usually occurs initially when mixing water into shrinkage-compensating cement. This high demand is caused by the (1) hydration of the cement, (2) the ettringite growth which starts immediately upon introduction of water, and (3) the wetting of materials. We can look for a one to three inch slump loss within the first 30 minutes. Shrinkage-compensating concrete should be placed at a five plus/minus one inch slump.

Q: Does air entrainment react differently with shrinkage-compensating cement?
A:
With very few exceptions, air entrainment admixtures that comply with ASTM C260 may be used for the same purpose with shrinkage-compensating concrete as with other types of portland cement concrete. Generally, the same amount of a given air-entraining admixture will produce a comparable percentage of entrained air, all other conditions being equal. (ACI 223-98 4.4.1). Please call your CTS Cement representative for guidance in selecting an air entraining admixture for your shrinkage-compensating concrete mix design.

Q: Why is there no bleed water?
A:
The formation of ettringite uses the extra mix water thus eliminating the bleed water.

Q: Is Komponent® an admixture?
A:
Komponent is not an admixture in the traditional sense, but one could think of it as a mineral admixture. Blending approximately 15% Komponent with 85% portland cement results in ASTM C845 Type K Cement. This is the basis of the Komponent System.

Q: How is Komponent® incorporated into the concrete mix?
A:
Komponent is added at the batch plant via a silo through the central mixing system, or added at the job site using a slurry machine. The slurry machine can be fed via bags or portable silo. These methods help ensure complete incorporation of the Komponent into the mix and prevent balling and pop-outs.

Q: I hear that we have two yards less concrete in the truck.
A:
With normal procedures and good batching practices the same size loads can be hauled. Some Departments of Transportation require two yards less on projects within their state. Check local regulations.

Storage and Handling Questions

Q: Where are CTS shrinkage-compensating cement products available?
A:
Everywhere. Contact your CTS Cement representative for details.

Q: Will shrinkage-compensating cement disrupt my operation?
A:
Producers who dedicate a silo to the Komponent mineral additive can incorporate it via normal operations. For those who will be using a portable silo or slurry machine, pre-planning is needed to ensure minimal disruption. There are a number of ways to incorporate Komponent into the operation. Planning ahead always makes the process much smoother.  Contact your CTS Cement representative for assistance.

Q: What do I do with the leftover shrinkage-compensating cement?
A:
Shrinkage-compensating cement can be used in footers or other non-spec work. Type I can be pumped right on top of it and blended if there is not much left over. Calcium chloride can be added to Type K to prevent ettringite formation, reverting the remainder of the mix to standard portland cement.

Q: Type-K sticks to the fins of my drums on my concrete trucks.
A:
Fin build-up is primarily due to insufficient mix water or lack of enough mixing revolutions. Use about 1,000 pounds of stone and enough water to let the mix act like a scouring pad in the truck. The stone can be reused.

Placement Questions

Q: Do we need special tools or knowledge?
A:
Standard finishing tools and equipment are used. Any distinctive characteristics can be covered during the pre-construction and pre-placement meetings. It is also suggested that a representative from CTS be contacted prior the initial pour for consultation.

Q: Can we add water at the jobsite?
A:
With Type K mix water is added at the batch plant. For increased workability on the job site, water reducers can be added. Exceptions must be approved by the test lab or engineer. If slump adjustments are necessary, a superplasticizer may be used on site.

Q: Will the shrinkage-compensating concrete blow up the forms with this expansion?
A:
No, the shrinkage-compensating concrete does not expand that quickly or that much. These are very small controlled expansions (0.04% to 0.1% at 7 days). As the cement expands, the reinforcement resists the expansion of the concrete, limiting it to the designed expansion requirements.

Q: What about curing? Can we just use a spray-on curing compound?
A:
Proper curing is very important to ensure a successful shrinkage-compensating concrete project. Curing compounds DO NOT provide sufficient curing for the concrete. The surface of the concrete must remain continuously wet for a full seven days to ensure maximum expansion of the ettringite crystals. There are many ways to accomplish this. The simplest is to dam the sides of the concrete and flood the surface. Alternatively, the surface can be wet with a hose and then rolled plastic sheets placed on top. Periodically the slab will have to be re-wet. Other options are available. Contact your CTS Cement representative for more information.

Jobs & Applications

Owner Location Engineer/Contractor
Menards, Inc. Plainfield, IL Ahren’s Concrete
Foxen Canon Landfill Los Olivos, CA Santa BarbaraCountyD.P.W.
Agar Supply Taunton, MA Stahlman Engineering
D.C.I.DistributionCenter Upper Marlboro, MD Fricks Floor Systems
OriglioDistributionCenter N. Philadelphia, PA Stahlman Engineering
Heidelberg Warehouse Rye, NH Fricks Floor Systems
TMSI Distribution Ceneter Windsor, CO Fricks Floor Systems
Benihana Warehouse San Antonio, TX Fricks Floor Systems
C&S Wholesale York, PA Kinsley Corporation
Menards Store Danville, IL Allen Face and Assoc.
K-MartDistributionCenter Amsterdam, NY H&M Constructions
Force Warehouse Columbus, IN Harold Force, Co.
Sysco Foods Rocky Hill, CT Suzio Concrete
Bozzuto’s Foods Cheshire, CT Stahlman Engineering
Cornucopia Natural Foods Danville, CT CIM Design
Coca Cola Londonderry, NH Stahlman Engineering
Price Chopper Rotterdam, NY St. Onge Ruff
HEB Grocers Houston, TX Fricks Floor Systems
Aldi’s Foods Allentown, PA Food Plant Engineers
RocketCity Naval Station Hagerstown, MD Navy Engineering
Toyota Distribution Orange County, CA Baker Concrete
West-Pak Foods Tracy, CA Food Plant Engineering

____________________________________________________________________

Ongrade and Elevated Slabs City State
Lockheed Martin multiple U.S. locations
Boeing St. Louis MO
Toyota multiple U.S. locations
American Greetings Buffalo NY
Anheuser-Busch St. Louis MO
Coca Cola multiple U.S. locations
Hershey multiple U.S. locations
Gatorade Atlanta GA
Cabot Creamery Cabot VT
Sysco Hartford CT
CostcoDistributionCenter multiple U.S. locations
FredMeyersDistributionCenter multiple U.S. locations
WinnDixieDistributionCenter Montgomery AL
Albertsons multiple U.S. locations
Kroger Salem VA
H.E.B. Grocery San Antonio TX
Aldi Foods multiple U.S. locations
SuperValu Foods Urbana  IL
Kebe Foods Ft.Worth TX
Cornucopia Natural Foods Inc. Dayville CT
Hatfield Quality Meats Hatfield
JC Penney Reno NV
K-Mart Amsterdam NY
The Limited multiple U.S. locations
Bozzuto’s Inc. multiple U.S. locations
Menards multiple U.S. locations
Home Depot Closure Pours multiple U.S. locations
Ace Hardware Tulsa OK
Ben E. Keith multiple U.S. locations
Amy’s Kitchen Medford OR
JohnWayneAirport Parking GarageCA OrangeCounty CA
Santa Monica Parking Structures Santa Monica CA
Los AngelesWorldTradeCenter Los Angeles CA
St. John’sHospital Springfield MO
Waste Transfer Station Santa Barbara CA
Tesco Food Distribution Riverside CA
StaterBros.DistributionCenter San Bernardino CA
Aldi’s Food Salsbury NC
Sheridan Books Ypsilanti MI
ATS Manufacturing Co. Delaware OH
FDR Drugs Cedar Rapids IA
Ohio Turnpike Multiple locations OH
Lindt Chocolate Stratham NH
Assocated Grocers Oklahoma City OK
Lockheed Martin Fort Worth TX
Lithia Chrysler Jeep Dodge Dealership Medford OR
TargetDC Freezer & Office LakeCity FL
Treatment Plants and Tanks City State
Roberto R. Bustamante WWTP El Paso TX
Jonathon W. Rogers WTP El Paso TX
Dallas/Ft. Worth WTP Dallas/Ft. Worth TX
City of Arlington WTP Arlington TX
City of Texas City WTP Texas City TX
City of Odessa WTP Odessa TX
Ashland Chemical Secondary Containment multiple U.S. locations
DuPont Cooling TowerBasin Victoria TX
Gulf Oil Cooling TowerBasin Alliance LA
Washingon Sub. Sanitary Comm. Basins Potomac MD
E.I. DuPont DeNemours Waste Settling Basins Antioch CA
Union Oil Flocculation and FlotationBasin Oleum CA
City of AustinBasins Austin TX
City of Alexandria Basins Alexandria LA
City of Chicago Basins Chicago IL
City of Vicksburg Digester and Clarifier Vicksburg MS
City of Council Bluffs Digester and Clarifier Council Bluffs IA
City of Grand Rapids Digester and Clarifier Grand Rapids MI
City of New Ulm Digester and Clarifier Mew Ulm MN
City of Fairborn Tanks and Structures Fairborn OH
City of Troy Tank and Basins Troy OH
City of Fredericksburg Prestressed Tank Fredericksburg VA
City of Eugene Water Reservoir Eugene OR
Woolworth Reservoir S. San Francisco CA
City of Albuquerque Reservoir Albuquerque NM
City of Carroll Reservoir Carroll IA
American Cyanamid Tanks WillowIsland WV
City of Memphis Filter Gallery Memphis TN
City of Minneapolis Tank-Dewatering Unit Minneapolis MN
City of Macon Dam and Spillway Macon GA
Crown/Simpson Pulp Mill Tanks Samona CA
Gallup Fuel Storage Gallup NM
Cabelas Fish Tanks multiple U.S. locations
BASF Containment Chattanooga TN
Nuclear Waste Containment Oak Ridge TN
Koppers Chemical Containment Chicago IL
Bureau of Reclamation Dam Spokane WA
Transportation City State
CuyahogaCountyBridge Cleveland OH
Michigan DOT Bridges multiple locations MI
Ohio Turnpike Bridges multiple locations OH
M-6/US-131 Bridge Grand Rapids MI
Pennsylvania Turnpike Bridges multiple locations PA
LokernBridge Buttonwillow CA
Delta Airlines Concourse Atlanta GA
RockfordAirport Taxiway Rockford IL
Love Field East and West Taxiways Dallas TX
Port of Los Angeles Waterfront Promenade Los Angeles CA
Corps. of Engineers Dam Spillways Macon GA
Recreational City State
University of Southern California Pool Repair Los Angeles CA
Swimming Pools multiple U.S. locations
Ice Rinks multiple U.S. locations
Skateboard Parks multiple U.S. locations
Museum of Natural History Raleigh SC
El Paso Coliseum El Paso TX
Additional Applications City State
Savings and Loan Folded Plate Roof Marysville CA
Residential Flat Roof Brentwood CA
Festival Booster Station Roof El Paso TX
Seismic RetroFit St. Louis MO
Uranium Storage Padukah TN
Soil Anchors multiple U.S. locations
MunicipalCenter Slabs and Walls Dallas TX
Dry Dock N Jacksonville FL
Tennis Courts San Francisco TX
Seismic Retrofit (Bridge Columns) St. Louis MO

 

Reference Guide(s)

This Reference Guide provides design and construction recommendations for the Komponent® Shrinkage-Compensating Products.

This Manual provides operating instructions for using Komponent® with the Slurry Machine…

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