|Approach slabs||DOT Cement, Rapid Set® Cement|
|Back fill||Flowable Fill|
|Bridge deck overlays||Rapid Set® Latex-Modified Concrete, Komponent®, Low-P™ Cement, Low-P™ FA1 Cement|
|Bridge decks||Komponent®, Rapid Set® Cement|
|Closure pours (for precast elements)||DOT Concrete Mix, DOT Repair Mix, DOT Cement, Komponent®, Low-P™ Cement|
|Grouting||Cement All®, Rapid Set® Cement, UltraFlow® 4000/8, Komponent®|
|Hinge reconstruction||DOT Cement, Rapid Set® Cement|
|Repairs and rehab||Concrete Mix, Mortar Mix, Mortar Mix Plus, DOT Concrete Mix, DOT Repair Mix, V/O Repair Mix|
Eliminating joints has long been an objective of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) that regulates airport runways and taxiways. Joints are usually the locus of spalling, which not only causes bumpy rides but also creates a hazardous situation: loose concrete fragments can get sucked into jet engine intakes. It was the desire to solve the problems caused by joints that led the FAA to construct one of the most unusual concrete slabs in the world at the Rockford, IL airport in 1993. It is a 75 ft wide x 1,200 feet long, post-tensioned pavement made with fibrous shrinkage compensating concrete using Type K shrinkage-compensating cement. There are no joints cut into it.
MoDOT's Northeast District bridge crews immediately closed the westbound lane of the 67-year-old bridge to repair a large hole. By using DOT Cement for this emergency repair, traffic was reopened to travelers the same day.
The specification called for a compressive strength of 3,000 psi prior to opening to traffic. The Rapid Set Latex-Modified Concrete overlay achieved this strength within three hours of placement, allowing the bridge to open for traffic each evening, meeting the DOT’s requirement. Product used was RSLMC.
Using Low-P FA1 Cement to place a new 6-inch-thick overlay on the bridge deck allowed the project to be completed in two days, resulting in minimal traffic disruptions. Passengers have an impermeable riding surface that provides corrosion resistance to the underlying deck reinforcement from road salts, providing long-lasting durability in Boston’s four-season climate.
Wider use of proven technologies that eliminate or reduce concrete cracking in old or new decks can reduce the billions of dollars spent annually in the United States on repair or replacement of bridge decks damaged by chloride-induced corrosion. Products used include Type K shrinkage-compensating cement and RSLMC.
DOTs are tasked with deploying new techniques and new products to extend pavement in timeframes that reduce traffic interruptions and lane closure times. Rapid-hardening cement helps them meet this challenge, since it sets and gains strength rapidly. Products used include Cement All, Mortar Mix, FLOW Control, Low-P Cement, and Rapid Set Cement.
In 1968, the State of Ohio began testing Type K concrete in bridge decks with impressive results. In 1984, the Ohio Turnpike Commission began a program of bridge deck replacement; since 1985, all deck replacements have been performed with Type K concrete. In the years since, other states, including Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania, have also adopted the use of Type K cement in bridge decks.
Missouri’s largest bridge improvement project benefitted from fast-setting grout. The keyways were grouted with Cement All because it showed high early strength and excellent bonding characteristics during mock-up testing. The final evaluation of the bridge indicated that using a fast-setting, high-strength, nonshrink grout was a success. The bridge scored the highest possible NBI rating of 9-9-9.
NCDOT performed a full rehab on the bascule bridge. The contractor removed and replaced the concrete surrounding the hinges and anchored the bearing plates that support the drawbridge. Using DOT Concrete Mix allowed the contractor to complete the work at night and have all bridge lanes opened to traffic on weekends and between 6 a.m. and 7 p.m. Mondays through Thursdays.
To prevent future shoving issues, Low-P FA1 Cement was used for the overlay. The work was completed in one weekend, and the result is a smooth riding surface that protects the underlying deck, providing long-lasting durability in Boston’s harsh freeze-thaw cycles.
Low-P Cement was chosen as the repair material due to the short time allowed to reconstruct concrete portions of the bridge. Low-P Cement is very rapid hardening (VRH) per ASTM C1600 and reaches 4,500 psi compressive strength in three hours. Work started at 8:00 am and both lanes were back in service by 6:00 pm
Bridge deck repairs were performed using RSLMC which was mixed in a volumetric mixer. The RSLMC achieved the specified 2,500 psi in 3 hours.
The ability to place large, concrete monolithic structures without contraction joints, construction seams, or shrinkage cracks makes shrinkage-compensating comcrete an ideal choice.
The George Washington Bridge carries more than 106 million vehicles a year, making it the world’s busiest motor-vehicle bridge. The pothole-riddled north- and south-bound access ramps that connect the bridge to New York State Route 9A needed to be repaired. The Port Authority needed to reopen the busy ramps in a timely manner to not disrupt traffic patterns. Products used include Concrete Mix and DOT Cement.
The Helix Fix project included performing concrete structural work, repaving the road, and installing new median barriers. DOT Cement and Low-P Cement were used.
Following is a brief history of the Lokern Road Bridge Rehabilitation project where Komponent shrinkage-compensating cement additive was used to minimize or eliminate drying shrinkage cracking. Product used was Komponent.
The New Hampshire DOT was constructing a new bridge on I-93 in Concord and wanted a grout that would provide fast-setting strength and be easy to use. Product used was Cement All.
70,000 square feet of partial depth bridge deck repairs were performed with DOT Concrete Mix. Up to two lanes were closed at night and then reopened in the morning.
Unlike the chemically stabilized air bubble of traditional methods, Low-P MSA's air voids are made up of tiny, flexible hollow polymer spheres that act as microscopic forms in the cement matrix. They are rigid enough to form voids in the hardened concrete, yet soft enough to compress and allow space for expanding water to provide the desired freeze/thaw protection.
Several elements were in need of replacement or repair, including nearly 13,000 sq feet (1,200 sq meters) of patching for the 54-year-old concrete bridge deck. Because the bridge could not be shut down during repairs, a quick-set mortar was specified for the patching material. Product used was Cement All.
DOT Repair Mix was used to repair the bridge joints on the Fremont Bridge. The repairs took place over different seasons where multiple weather conditions occurred. The bridge was able to reopen to traffic on time.
Concrete repairs were made to reinforce the transverse girder under the bridge. DOT Concrete Mix and FLOW Control were used.
Rapid Set Latex-Modified Concrete (RSLMC) overlay helped move the Lewis & Clark Bridge project ahead of schedule and under budget. WSDOT saved a minimum of nine days by using RSLMC instead of a slower setting concrete overlay. The repairs will extend the life of the bridge another 25 years.
Today’s design, engineering, and construction professionals face a host of complex construction challenges. A vast majority of construction projects incorporate the use of concrete for its versatility, durability, and sustainability. This article discusses how Type K shrinkage-compensating cement improves the concrete by overcoming drying shrinkage cracking, reducing permeability, and improving sulfate resistance.
The cement used in concrete can have a lasting impact on the life span of new concrete bridge decks. Learn how Type K cement for new bridge construction and rapid hardening cement for repairs and new overlays can help extend the useful life cycle of concrete bridge decks.
Fast-setting cement products were used for partial-depth repairs, repairing the lateral barriers, and anchoring and the new pipes for the new floor drains. Work took place in temperatures soaring above 90° degrees Fahrenheit. Products used were DOT Repair Mix, V/O Repair Mix, WunderFixx, Cement All, CR Concrete Resurfacer, and Corrosion Inhibitor.
Special cements allow for quicker, long-lasting concrete bridge and deck repairs.
After 20 years in service, six Type K cement bridge decks constructed in the early 1990s have proven their exceptional durability and crack mitigation performance. Shrinkage compensating concrete bridge decks are very low cost to maintain due to no deck delaminations, spalls or steel corrosion.
Because of the high traffic volume on the Route 95 bridge, MassDOT developed a unique solution to complete deck repairs over the course of two weekends. Product used was Low-P cement.
The I-280 bridge hinge joints are designed to slide and rotate, providing the 6-mile-long concrete structure the flexibility and stability to withstand an earthquake. The worn-out hinges on the bridge were replaced with hinges better designed to handle seismic forces. It was planned long before the Napa earthquake, which caused no damage to the structure. Product used was Rapid Set Cement.